Obtaining a wide range is a decisive factor for the success of electric vehicles, and a vehicle’s electronic battery management system (BMS) is of critical importance for its range. However, the role of the BMS is not limited to ensuring that drivers can travel as far as possible on a single charge. It also influences the lifetime of the lithium-ion batteries, which makes it a large factor for the cost effectiveness of electric vehicles.

Testing battery management systems

The LABCAR-MODEL portfolio comprises simulation models of the IC engine, lithium-ion battery for vehicle propulsion, electric motor, fuel cell, and vehicle dynamics, as well as the vehicle, driver, and environment.

In spite of this importance, carrying out tests using real batteries is not always possible or the best option. Conditioning batteries for tests is a very time-intensive process due to the slowness with which the relevant effects (such as temperature behavior, charging and discharging, and aging) develop and progress. In addition, it is very difficult to achieve reproducibility in tests with real battery packs on account of aging and production-specific variations. Also, real tests can lead to safety-critical situations in the event of battery management system (BMS) malfunctions. By contrast, the use of hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) systems and the corresponding models permits safe, reproducible testing – even within limit ranges.

ETAS’s LABCAR-MODEL-BAT model simulates the behavior of lithium-ion batteries. It allows users to comprehensively test battery management ECUs in the HiL system, even in safety-critical operating states, and to carry out an initial precalibration of control functions.

Typical use cases

  • Testing and precalibration of battery management systems (BMS) at the BMS controller software or cell supervisory circuit (CSC) level
  • Testing of critical battery states such as overheating, overcharging, and various electrical faults
  • Testing of ECU functions such as active balancing and state of charge (SoC) estimation


  • The model realistically simulate all the main physical effects that are required for the reliable testing of functions such as SoC estimation, passive balancing, and active balancing
  • The model are characterized by a balanced relationship between model runtime, accuracy, and parameterization time/cost
  • Robust, tried-and-tested models
  • Can be combined with all ETAS simulation models in the LABCAR-MODEL product family
  • Automatic setting of model parameters using existing measurement data from a real battery